What is it?MP-Assembler is an assembler to be used on the PC to assemble source code for the 6502, its compatible successors, and other CPUs. MP stands for "Multi Processor": At the moment it can assemble 6502, 65C02, 65816, 6800, 6809, Z80 and My TTL CPU opcode. The special feature of this assembler is that you can mix all opcodes in the same file, if you want to.This comes in handy when assembling programs for the C128 (6502 and Z80) and the MMF-9000 (6502 and 6809).
The storyToday a lot of assemblers exist for the 6502, Z80 etc. and each claims to be better than all the other ones. But when I started to write this one in 1988, there wasn't one available as free/shareware (AFIAK) on the PC. There were some available for the C64 but here I encountered a problem: I wasn't able to handle large source codes; the C64 lacked the needed memory. At that time I already was thinking about replacing the drive of the 1541 with an hard disk and thus a big change of the original system ROM was needed. Much more memory and a bigger screen made me to decide to use a PC instead.
The used syntax is based in the first place on the assembler Hypra-Ass for the Commodore 64, published in the German Magazine 64'er in october1984. But in the meanwhlie I accepted syntax used by other assemblers as well.
I don't think my assembler is better the other ones. I used to say: "It has one major advantage: you get the source code with it! So if you don't like or miss certain features, you simply change them or add ones of your own.". But nowadays most assemblers are open source. Knowing the assembler through and through the sadvantage for me is that I know where and how to change and/or add things more quickly.
My assembler is a multi pass assembler. My assembler needs at least three passes but if it needs more, then it will uuse them. Look at the next example:
.eq L1 = L2 + 5 .eq L2 = L3 + 8 .eq L3 = 18At the first pass L1, L2 and L3 are known but L1 and L2 cannot be evaluated because the value of L3 for L2 is unknown at that moment And the value of L2 for L1. At the next pass L2 can be calculated but not L1 yet. At the third pass L1 can be calculated as well. If there is nothing dependent of L1, we are in luck and there were just three passes needed. But if you expand the above example with L4, L5 and L6, at least six passes are needed.
How does my assembler know that it needs more passes? It counts all errors encountered during a pass. Not being able to calculate the value for L2 is such an error. At the end of the next pass could be calculated so there is at least one error less and that is reason enough to continue. The moment the number of errors is the same as the previous pass, the assembler knows nothing can be done anymore and it stops assembling.
There exist two and even one pass assemblers but they are limited or IMHO they use one or another trick. I just kept it simple because a speedy computer will undo the disadvantages of more passes.
Last thing: I started writing this assembler using Turbo Pascal 3, went throug version 4, 5, 5.5, 6 and 7 and then I switched to Free Pascal Compiler. But some time ago I decided that it should be able to run on old machines as well and decided to go back to TP7.
Using the assemblerUsage: MPASSEM /Ffilename
/Ffilename = the extensions ".A65", ".Z80", ".ASM", etc. may be omitted
The assembler filesThe only thing the assembler asks from you is a begin and an end mark, .ba and .en in this case. For the rest you are absolutely free to write it in the way you want. You can define more then one begin address but be warned: it is your own responsibility to take care of not overwriting previous assembled code!
To help you to streamline your application you have a lot of compiler directives at your disposal:
.ap Filename = APpend a file to be assembled as well .as $xxxx $yyyyy = only ASsemble the given range .ba $xxxx = Begin Address of the code or data. More then one .ba may be used. .by [$]aa, [$]bb, [$]cc..... .by label1, label2..... = define a number of BYtes. You can use fixed values as well as labels or text (added later, other assemblers allowed it, therefore). .co This is comment = COmment to be displayed on the screen during the last pass .dw $xxxxxxxx = define a number of Double Words .ec = Enable Comment in final super file for debugging .ei = End If: end of conditional programming .el = ELse: part of conditional programming .en = ENd of file. All text, code or data behind this mark will be ignored. .eq OwnLabel1 = $xx .eq OwnLabel2 = $xxxx .eq OwnLabel3 = OwnLabel2 + 1 = EQuals, define your own label. Values can be changed (used to be not). .fb [$]xx, [$]yy .fb "c", [$]yy .fb label, [$]yy = Fill Byte: fill a range of length [$]yy with the same byte. A character, a fixed value or a label can be used as input. .fd [$]xxxxxxxx, [$]yy .fd "c", [$]yy .fd label, [$]yy = Fill Double word. .fi Filename = use a binary FIle as base for your own binary. Can be used to write patches over original binaries. .fu [$]xx,$yyyy = fill the buffer with a byte up to a given address .fw [$]xxxx, [$]yy .fw "c", [$]yy .fw label, [$]yy = Fill Word. .ie = If Else: part of conditional programming .if label = IF: start of conditional programming. .ma Name = define a MAcro. .me = Macro End .oo = stOp support of Overlay files .ov = support of OVerlay files, so double label names won't cause an error .paI'm working on a Pascal Compiler that uses this assembler to generate the executables. This means implementing features and directives that are not mentioned yet in this document.
= same as PAth in MS-DOS .p
= processor type .rb $aaaa = Readdress Begin. Following code will be assembled as if it was situated at address $aaaa. .re = Readdress End .ta = translate given text to ASCII (default) .tp = translate given text to PETSCII .tw "This is 'TEXT'" = TeXt, first char+$80 (for Commodore) .tx "This is 'TEXT'" .tx 'This is "TEXT"' = TeXt .ty "This is 'TEXT'" = TeXt, last char+$80 (for Commodore) .tz "This is 'TEXT'" = TeXt, first and last char+$80 (for Commodore) .uf
= Use File, include a file at this point .uu filename = Use external Unit as source for the used macros .wo $aaaa, $bbbb, $cccc..... .wo label1, label2..... = define a range of WOrds. ; Here you can place comments = remark /* here you can place several lines of comment */ = speaks for itself IMHO org $xxxx = begin address, same as .ba
The produced files
.BIN = binary to be used for programming EPROMs etc. .LST = text file with complete listing of statements and resulting code .SUP = text file, same as ASM file but after all macro's etc. have been processed 'md-asm.log' = log file
ExamplesRemark: most browsers aren't familiar with the ASM extension and will ask you whether to open or save it. So I saved the examples with the TXT extension so you can view them on your browser.
If you download these examples, you can assemble them as they are using "MPASM example.TXT" or rename them to ASM and using "MPASM example".
C000.asm is a very small but working code. It writes the character 'A' in the top-left corner of your C64 screen. ".ba $C000" means that the program starts at $C000 / 49152. The PRG should be loaded on a C64 with LOAD "C000",8,1. SYS 49152 will start the program.
Warning: be aware of the space in front of the opcodes! If there isn't any form of white space in front of an opcode, the assembler will treat it as a label. And as it won't recognise the operand as opcode, the assembler will end with an error.
C001.asm will display the alphabet on the screen. Notice the place of label L1. Also notice that, although it is quite small, the program is hardly readable.
C002.asm is the same program but made more readable. The most important difference are the lines with comment. How small your program is, comment it! If it isn't for your self, do it for others.
test6580.asm is a test file used by me to test almost all features of the assembler. It also explains the use of most directives. If you have questions, just drop me an email.
The futureIn an older I said that I dropped implementing 8088 code. But I changed my mind. I started to create my own Pascal Compiler, one that outputs macros. An assembler then has to turn these macros into binaries. Obvious targets are the various Commodore computers with a 6502 (-ish) CPU. But I want to go a step further by creating a Pascal OS, one that can run on 8088 machines like the IBM PC/XT and the various Commodore PC10/20s. But then I had to find an assembler that could handle my macros. I decided that it would be better to let my assembler support the 8088/8086 as well. I'll think about the V20, 80186, 80286 and better. The V20 has a good chance, including its capabilities to run 8080 programs, but for the others: the higher the number, the lesser the chance.
The source code.The source code is freeware, just drop me a line and it will be sent to you.
You can email me here.